Below are two of Julie’s main areas of study, taken from:

Composite Materials

From the Royal Society of Chemistry:

A composite material is made by combining two or more materials – often ones that have very
different properties. The two materials work together to give the composite unique properties.
However, within the composite you can easily tell the different materials apart as they do not
dissolve or blend into each other

(Source: This description was take from the RSC’s PDF on Composite Materials)


More recently, researchers have also begun to actively include sensing, actuation, computation and communication into composites, which are known as Robotic Materials.[2]

Typical engineered composite materials include:



From the National Nanotechnology Initiative:

Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.


An example you use every day has to do with something we talked about waaaaay back in episode 1; Moore’s Law. As a refresher, Moore’s Law is:

The number of transistors on a 1-inch (2.5 centimeter) diameter of silicon doubles every [18] number of months. (source:

Or, in layman’s terms, CPUs get twice as fast every every year and a half. They do this by putting smaller and thus more transistors on the chip. Those transistors are now so small they’re

Here’s a link to read more about how nanomanufacturing may be rendering Moore’s law Moot:

In case you’re wondering how many transistors are on the top CPUs:

Processor Transistor count Date of introduction Designer Process Area
32-core AMD Epyc 19,200,000,000 2017 AMD 14 nm 768 mm2 (4 x 192 mm2)
Centriq 2400 18,000,000,000[43] 2017 Qualcomm 10 nm 398 mm2
32-core SPARC M7 10,000,000,000[42] 2015 Oracle 20 nm

To see the entire table go here:


Cover of the Book "Brotopia" by Emily ChangThis is a great book for peeking behind the curtain of the misdeeds of  Silicon Valley. It can be a tough read but if knowledge is power, then this is on very, very powerful book.$002f$002fSD_ILS$002f0$002fSD_ILS:934486/one

Food for Thought

According to an article in The Guardian, from 2016, the world’s smallest book was created by Vladimir Aniskin and measures 70 by 90 micrometres, or 0.07mm by 0.09mm. The book contains the Russian Alphabet.


However, Guinness still lists, Malcom Douglas Chaplin’s Teeny Ted from Turnip Town as the smallest, measuring 70 x 100 micrometres. This book was created in 2012.

Cover of the Book "Brotopia" by Emily Chang

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